Microbiota: ¿Sabemos de qué estamos hablando?

Autores/as

  • Natalia Apentchenko Eriutina Hospital Costa de Sol (Marbella)

Palabras clave:

microbiota, enfermedades gastrointestinales

Resumen

La microbiota intestinal es la población bacteriana que habita en el tracto intestinal de los seres humanos. La función de estas especies bacterianas es ayudar a la digestión y a la absorción de nutrientes, facilitar la maduración del epitelio intestinal y proteger el intestino de los patógenos. La composición y la diversidad de la microbiota, así como su influencia en la salud y la enfermedad ha sido objeto de múltiples estudios en las últimas décadas. Se ha encontrado relación entre la microbiota y distintas enfermedades gastrointestinales, tales como la infección por Clostridium difficile o la enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal. Sin embardo, en los últimos años, está ganando interés su relación con enfermedades gastrointestinales tan diversas, como trastornos metabólico, neuropsiquátricos y autoinmunes, entre otros. Actualmente, la principal forma de manipulación terapéutica de la desbiosis es el trasplante de materia fecal. Múltiples estudios han demostrado su efectividad en el tratamiento de la infección recurrente por Clostridium difficile. Algunos estudios prometedores han sugerido su potencial papel en el tratamiento de otros trastornos. Sin embargo, es imprescindible disponer de mas estudios que permitan desentrañar los mecanismos exactos por los que la microbiota influye en el desarrollo de estas enfermedades y valorar, así, si su manipulación puede ayudar a su tratamiento.

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2021-12-31