Socialist City in a Post-Socialist Condition: The History of Transition

Autores/as

  • Martynas Marozas Kaunas University of Technology (Lithuania)

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.26754/ojs_zarch/zarch.201559106

Palabras clave:

Post-socialist transition, USSR housing history, USSR housing policy, microrayon, socialist housing, post-modern condition, socialist city, soviet planning, Lithuanian housing, Lithuanian transition

Resumen

Decentralization and shift to market-driven planning systems that started after the fall of USSR all over Central and Eastern Europe, had followed a predetermined path, however it varied depending on socioeconomic and spatial features of a specific location. This paper analyses socialist housing history, its politics, planning culture, institutions, concepts, and ideals that shaped socialist city and its infrastructure in USSR and in Lithuania. It juxtaposes socialist planning principles, construction volume and ideals behind the concept of microrayon, to its actual quality, poor implementation patterns and prevalent underdevelopment culture. Furthermore the paper covers the origins of a legitimacy crisis that Lithuanian planning system entered after independence together with processes and their outcomes that shaped Lithuanian cities during first decade of an independence. Lastly, this paper offers an explanation for chaotic post-socialist transition during and after the “wild east” phase highlighting planning flaws, socio-economic changes in the society, planning incompatibilities and other challenges that Lithuania faced after the shift from planned to a market-driven economy

Descargas

Los datos de descargas todavía no están disponibles.

Biografía del autor/a

Martynas Marozas, Kaunas University of Technology (Lithuania)

Kaunas University of Technology (KTU, Lithuania). Faculty of architecture and civil engineering, Lecturer, Course coordinator. Urban designer and planner, development process moderator. Specialized on complex transformation strategies of the existing city where stakeholder participation and moderation is necessary. Martynas Marozas is an expert in participatory planning processes with a specialisation in urban development. She has worked on a number of complex social-spatial projects that require community participation and intense moderation. She holds masters degree from Delft University of Technology. During 2009-2013 worked as a project leader in a Rotterdam based office “We Love The City” where he contributed to numerous participatory housing, public space and infrastructure projects both in The Netherlands and worldwide. Currently he is a director of MMAP, a Vilnius-based company specializing in participatory urban community development and runs an Urban Transformations studio in Kaunas University of Technology. He is also a project leader for Neris river transformation involving different stakeholders and coordinating entire planning process.

Citas

CENTRAL RESEARCH AND DESIGN INSTITUTE OF TOWN PLANNING STATE COMMITTEE OF CIVIL ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECUTRE UNDER GOSSTROY USSR. (1966). Ocнoбы Coбеtckoгo грaдoctpoиteльctбa (Vol. 1). Moscow: Stroizdat.

SÝKORA, L. (1999). Changes in the internal spatial structure of post-communist Prague. GeoJournal (49), 79-89.

CENTRAL RESEARCH AND DESIGN INSTITUTE OF TOWN PLANNING STATE COMMITTEE OF CIVIL ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECUTRE UNDER GOSSTROY USSR. (1967). Ocнoбы Coбеtckoгo грaдoctpoиteльctбa (Vol. 3). Moscow, USSR: Stroizdat.

GERDVILIS, V. (2005). Rytų – Vakarų Opozicija Projektuojant Daugiabučius Pastatus. Urbanistika ir Architektūra , XXIX (3), 125-130.

MAŽEIKIAI MUNICIPALITY. (2008 йил 10-November). Mažeikiai municipality. Retrieved 2008 йил 12-December from History: http://www.mazeikiai.lt/go.php/lit/Strateginis_planas/189/2/153 Mažeikiai distric encyclopedia. (2007 йил 20-04).

Mažeikiai distric encyclopedia. Retrieved 2008 йил 12-12 from Istorija: http://www.mke.lt/Kategorija:Istorija

LEONAVIČIUS, V., & KETURAKIS, S. (2002). Sovietinë globalioji modernybë ir globalumo-lokalumo. Sociologija, Mintis ir veiksmas (2), 40-49.

MAČIULIS, A. (1997). Architektūra. Vilnius: Vilniaus Dailės Akademijo leidykla.

VANAGAS, J. (2003). Miesto teorija. Vilnius: Vilniaus Dailės Akademijos leidykla.

VESELY, D. (1999). The humanity of architecture. In N. Leach (Ed.), Architecture and revolution (pp. 139-145). London: Routledge.

VILNIUS CITY MUNICIPALITY LAZDYNAI DISTRICT. (2008 йил 12-02). Vilnius City Municipality Lazdynai district. Retrieved 2008 йил 12-02 from History: http://www.vilnius.lt/seniunijos/lazdynai/ index.php?open=true&meniu_id=7

VINKE, J. (2004). The transformation of collective housing estates. In C. Wagenaar, & M. Dings (Eds.), Ideals in concrete (pp. 132-138). Rotterdam, Netherlands: NAi publishers.

VISAGINAS CITY MUNICIPALITY. (2008 йил 14-October). History. Retrieved 2008 йил 12-December from Teritorijų planavimas ir statyba: http://www.visaginas.lt/index.php?1453177998

ABEN, R. (2004). Where were landscape architects when residential Edens were built? Outdoor spaces in modernist residential districts. In W. Cor, & D. Mieke (Eds.), Ideals in concretre (pp. 153159). Rotterdam, Netherlands: NAi Publishers.

ANDRUSZ, G. D. (1985). Housing and Urban Development in the USSR. London, United Kingdom: Macmillan.

BLOCH, E. (1995). The Principle of Hope: Volume 3. (P. Knight, N. Plaice, & S. Plaice, Trans.) Cambridge: MIT Press.

BOERI, S. (2003). Fertile Delay. Retrieved 2009 йил 28-02 from 38_ZAGREB_SALON Catalogue Introduction: http://www.uha.hr/zagrebackisalon/public_html/zs_final/ex/info/ex_intro_en.htm

BOTTON, D. A. (2006). Architecture of happiness: The Secret Art of Furnishing Your Life. London, England: Penguin Books Ltd.

CHESTERTON, G. K. (1924 йил 19-04). Illustrated London News . CHERP, A., & MNATSAKANIAN, R. (2003 йил 9-August). Environmental degradation in Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia:past roots, present transition and future hopes. Budapest.

DUBOS, R. (1965). Man adapting. New Haven, CN, USA: Yale University Press. DiMaio, J. A. (1974). Soviet Urban Housing: Problems and Politics. London: Praeger Publishers, Inc.

FOUCAULT, M. (2004). Naissance de la biopolitique. Cours au Collège de France. 1978-1979. (C. O’Farrell, Trans.) Paris: Gallimard.

FOUCAULT, M. (1988). Power, Moral Values, and the Intellectual. History of the Present 4, 1. (M. Bess, Interviewer)

FOUCALT, M. (1988). Power, Moral Values, and the Intellectual. History of the Present 4. (M. Bess, Interviewer)

FRENCH, A. R., & HAMILTON, E. I. (1979). The Socialist City: Spatial Structure and Urban Policy. New York: John Willey & Sons.

FRENCH, R. A., & HAMILTON, I. F. (1979). Is there a Socialist City? In R. A. French, & I. F. Hamilton (Eds.), The socialist city (pp. 1-22). New York: John Willey & Sons.

GLASSL, A. (1970). Housing Problems in the soviet Union. Retrieved 2008 йил 18-November from Open Society Archives: http://files.osa.ceu.hu/holdings/300/8/3/text/66-2-319.shtml

GRAVA, S. (2007). Urban transportation in the Baltic republics. In The Post-Socialist City (pp. 313343). London: Springer.

IOAN, A. (1999). A postmodern critic’s kit for interpreting socialist realism. In N. Leach (Ed.), Architecture and revolution (pp. 62-66). London: Routledge.

HARVEY, D. (1991). The Condition of Postmodernity: An Enquiry into the Origins of Cultural Change. Oxford: Blackwell.

JACOBS, J. (1961). The Death and Life of Great American Cities. New York, USA: Random House.

LEACH, N. (1999). Architecture or revolution? In Architecture and revolution (pp. 112-123). London: Routledge.

LEACH, N. (1999). Introduction. In Architecture and revolution (pp. 1-10). London: Routledge.

LIESHOUT, I. V., & ANNET, R. (2004). Deserted kitas and bustling kiosks. The transformation of public space and collective amenities in the socialist city. In W. Cor, & D. Mieke (Eds.), Ideals in concrete (pp. 146-152). Rotterdam, Netherlands: NAi publishers.

LIESHOUT, I. V., & ANNET, R. (2004). Desrted kitas and bustling kiosks. The transformation of public space and collective amenities in the socialist city. In W. Cor, & D. Mieke (Eds.), Ideals in concrete (pp. 146-152). Rotterdam, Netherlands: NAi publishers.

NEELEN, M., & DZOKIC, A. (2004). Forget about design. In Ideals in concrete (pp. 81-87). Rotterdam: NAi publishers. MUMFORD, E. (1992). CIAM urbanism after the Athens Charter. Planning Perspectives , 7, 391417.

MATTHEWS, M. (1979). Social Dimension in Soviet Urban Housing. In R. A. French, & I. F. Hamilton (Eds.), The socialist city (pp. 105-118). New York: John Willey & Sons.

MILOUTINE, N. (1971). Sotsgorod. Cambridge: MIT Press.

MORE, T. (1965). Utopia. London: Penguin Group.

MORTON, H. W. (1984). Housing in the Soviet Union. Proceedings of the Academy of Political Science: The Soviet Union in the 1980s (1984) , 35 (3), 69-80.

PARKINS, M. F. (1953). Soviet Policy on Urban Housing and Housing Rent. Land Economics , 29 (3), 269-279.

SAPSFORD, R., & ABBOTT, P. (2006). Trust confidence and social environment in post-communist societies. Communist and Post-Communist Studies , 39, 59-71.

SENNET, R. (2002). The fall of public man. London: Pengion Books Ltd.

STANILOV, K. (2007). Urban planning and the challenges of post-socialist transformation. In The Post-Socialist City: Urban Form and Space Transformations in Central and Eastern Europe after Socialism (pp. 413-425). London: Springer.

STANILOV, K. (2007). Democracy, markets, and public space in the transitional societies of Central and Eastern Europe. In The Post-Socialist City: Urban Form and Space Transformations in Central and Eastern Europe after Socialism (pp. 269-283). London: Springer.

STANILOV, K. (2007). Housing trends in Central and Eastern European cities during and after period of transition. In The Post-Socialist city: Urban Form and Space Transformations in Central and Eastern Europe after Socialism (pp. 173-190). London: Springer.

STANILOV, K. (2007). Political reform, economi development and regional growth in post-socialist Europe. In K. Stanilov (Ed.), The Post-Socialist City (pp. 21-34). London: Springer.

STANILOV, K. (2007). The restructuring of non-residential uses in the post-socialist metropolis. In The Post-Socialist City: Urban Form and Space Transformations in Central and Eastern (pp. 7399). London: Springer.

REINER, T. A., & WILSON, R. H. (1979). Planning and Decision-Making in the Soviet City: Rent, land, and Urban Form. In R. A. French, & I. F. Hamilton (Eds.), The Socialist City (pp. 49-71). New York: John Willey & Sons.

REINER, T., & STRONG, A. L. (1995). Formation of land and housing markets in the Czech Republic. Journal of Planning Education and Research , 61 (2), 200-209.

RENAULD, B. (1992). The housing system of the former Soviet Union: why do Soviets need housing markets? Housing policy debate , 887-889.

ROUSSEAU, J. J. (1923). The Social Contract and Discourses. London: J.M. Dent and Sons.

Descargas

Publicado

2015-12-31

Cómo citar

Marozas, M. (2015). Socialist City in a Post-Socialist Condition: The History of Transition. ZARCH. Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies in Architecture and Urbanism, (5), 56–67. https://doi.org/10.26754/ojs_zarch/zarch.201559106

Número

Sección

Artículos temáticos