Infraestructura urbana verde-azul en Boston y Bombay (Mumbai): una comparación geográfica macro-histórica

Autores/as

  • James L. Wescoat Jr. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
  • Smita Rawoot World Resources Institute

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.26754/ojs_zarch/zarch.2020154857

Palabras clave:

Infraestructura verde y azul, Cambio climático, Urbanismo costero

Resumen

Este estudio ofrece una comparación geográfica y macro histórica de la infraestructura urbana azul-verde en las ciudades costeras de Boston (EE. UU.) y Mumbai (antes Bombay, India). Después de presentar los objetivos y métodos de la geografía histórica comparada, nos enfocamos en las ideas que ofrecen estos dos casos. Sus historias comienzan con antiguos asentamientos pesqueros costeros, seguidos de los primeros procesos de urbanización y fortificación en el siglo XVII. A finales del siglo XVIII, los comerciantes angloamericanos de Boston comerciaban con los comerciantes parsi en Bombay, en un momento en que los bostonianos tenían poco más para vender que hielo a cambio de los finos textiles de la India. Desde principios del siglo XIX en adelante, las dos ciudades marítimas emprendieron procesos sorprendentemente paralelos de recuperación de tierras y desarrollo de agua. Boston encargó propuestas de infraestructura azul-verde a escala urbana, desde Back Bay Fens de Frederick Law Olmsted hasta el Plan del Distrito de Parques Metropolitanos de Charles Eliot, innovaciones que ofrecen más de un siglo de lecciones en desempeño ambiental y resiliencia. Las dos ciudades desarrollaron proyectos paralelos “Esplanade”, “Back Bay” y “Reclamation”. Ninguno de estos proyectos anticipó la magnitud del cambio de tierra, agua e infraestructura del siglo XX. Ambas ciudades han comenzado a abordar los crecientes riesgos de inundaciones urbanas, aumento del nivel del mar y desplazamiento de la población, pero necesitan visiones metropolitanas más audaces de infraestructura urbana azul-verde para abordar el cambio climático emergente y los peligros del agua.

Biografía del autor/a

James L. Wescoat Jr., Massachusetts Institute of Technology

James L. Wescoat Jr. is Aga Khan Professor Emeritus at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.  His research focuses on water resource issues in South Asia and the United States, from the site to international river basin scales.  He has also published articles on the historical water systems of Mughal gardens and cities in India and Pakistan.

Smita Rawoot, World Resources Institute

Smita Rawoot is an urban planner and architect deeply committed to building a urban resilience practice. She is the Urban Resilience Lead at the World Resources Institute (WRI), where she leads a team of researchers and urban development professionals striving to help cities mitigate and adapt to climate risks while advancing human and environmental health, economic opportunity and social wellness. She holds a Master in City Planning from Massachusetts Institute of Technology and a Masters in Architecture from Pratt Institute.

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2021-01-27